Project 1 CDA 4102/CDA 5155 Solved

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In this project you will create a simple RISC-V simulator which will perform the following two tasks.
Please develop your project in one (C, C++, Java or Python) source file to avoid the stress of
combining multiple files before submission and making sure it still works correctly.
• Load a specified RISC-V text file1
and generate the assembly code equivalent to the input file
(disassembler). Please see the sample input file and disassembly output in the project assignment.
• Generate the instruction-by-instruction simulation of the RISC-V code (simulator). It should also
produce/print the contents of registers and data memories after execution of each instruction.
Please see the sample simulation output file in the project assignment.

You do not have to implement any exception or interrupt handling for this project. We will use
only valid testcases that will not create any exceptions. Please go through this document first, and then
view the sample input/output files in the project assignment, before you start implementing the project.


You can refer to RISC-V Instruction Set Architecture (riscv-ISA.pdf in the course website) to see the
format for each instruction and pay attention to the following changes. For example, we introduced a
break instruction, modified the opcode format, etc. In other words, you should exactly follow the
details from riscv-ISA.pdf except the changes outlined in this document. In this project, we will be
using the instruction format from Figure A.23 and A.24 in the book (slide 47 of instruction.pptx).
Your disassembler & simulator need to support the three categories of instructions shown in Figure 1.
Category-1 Category-2 Category-3 Category-4
beq, bne, blt, sw add, sub, and, or addi, andi, ori, sll, sra, lw jal, break
Figure 1: Three categories of instructions
The format of Category-1 instructions is described in Figure 2. It has the same format as the S-type
instruction in slide 47 in instruction.pptx except the rightmost two bits. If the instruction belongs to
Category-1, the rightmost two bits (least significant bits) are always “00” preceded by 5 bits Opcode.
Note that instead of using 7 bits opcode in RISC-V, we use 5 bits opcode as described in Figure 3.
Assume func3 as “000”.
Opcode (5 bits) 00
Figure 2: Format of Instructions in Category-1

1 This is a text file consisting of 0/1’s (not a binary file). See the sample input file sample.txt in the project1 assignment.
imm[11:5] rs2 rs1 func3 imm[4:0]
Please pay attention to the exact description of instruction formats and its interpretation in RISC-V
instruction set. For example, in case of jal instruction, the 20-bit offset is shifted left by one bit (padded
with 0 at LSB side), sign extended to form 32 bits, and then added to the address of the jal instruction
to form the target address. Similarly, for beq, bne and blt instructions, the 12-bit offset is formed by
concatenating bits in [31:25] with bits in [11:7], and then the 12-bit offset is shifted left by one bit,
sign extended to form 32-bits, and added to the address of the current instruction to form the target
address. Please note that we do not consider delay slot for this project.
Instruction Opcode
beq 00000
bne 00001
blt 00010
sw 00011

Figure 3: Opcode for Category-1 instructions
If the instruction belongs to Category-2 which has the form “dest ← src1 op src2”, the rightmost two
bits (least significant bits) are always “01” as shown in Figure 4. It has the same format as the R-type
instruction in slide 47 in instruction.pptx except the rightmost two bits. Then the preceeding 5 bits
serve as opcode as listed in Figure 5. Assume func3 as “000” and func7 as “0000000”.
Opcode (5 bits) 01
Figure 4: Format of Category-2 instructions where both sources are registers
Instruction Opcode
add 00000
sub 00001
and 00010
or 00011

Figure 5: Opcode for Category-2 instructions
If the instruction belongs to Category-3 which has the form “dest ← src1 op immediate_value”, the
rightmost two bits (least significant bits) are always “10”. It has the same format as the I-type
instruction in slide 47 in instruction.pptx except the rightmost two bits. Then 5 bits for opcode as
indicated in Figure 6. The instruction format is shown in Figure 7. Assume func3 as “000”.
Instruction Opcode
addi 00000
andi 00001
ori 00010
sll 00011
sra 00100
lw 00101
Figure 6: Opcode for Category-3 instructions
func7 rs2 rs1 func3 rd
Opcode (5 bits) 10

Figure 7: Format of Category-3 instructions with source2 as immediate value
If the instruction belongs to Category-4, the rightmost two bits (least significant bits) are always “11”.
Then 5 bits for opcode as indicated in Figure 8. The instruction format is shown in Figure 9. It has the
same format as the U-type instruction in slide 47 in instruction.pptx except the rightmost two bits. Also
note that the U-type format in the slide shows “imm[31:12]” but we show it as “imm[19:0]” – both
means the same as 20-bit immediate value. Finally, we use the full functionality of “jal” (i.e., not
assuming rd as x0).
Instruction Opcode
jal 00000
break 11111
Figure 8: Opcode for Category-4 instructions
Opcode (5 bits) 11

Figure 9: Format of Category-4 instructions
All signed numbers should be interpreted using 2’s complement arithmetic. Note that the signed
numbers can be in registers, data memories or inside an instruction (e.g., the immediate field is signed
for addi). Most importantly, each location (register or data memory) can be treated differently based on
the context. For example, an arithmetic instruction (e.g., add) will treat the content of a register as a
signed number (in 2’s complement arithmetic), whereas a logical operation (e.g., and) will treat the
same register content as an unsigned number (sequence of bits). Please go through riscv-ISA.pdf to
understand how each instruction treats its operands (signed or unsigned). Assume that all unassigned
register and data memory locations are 0.

Sample Input/output Files

Your program will be given a text input file (see sample.txt). This file will contain a sequence of 32-bit
instruction words starting at address “256”. The final instruction in the sequence of instructions is
always break. There will be only one break instruction. Following the break instruction (immediately
after break), there is a sequence of 32-bit 2’s complement signed integers for the program data up to the
end of the file. The newline character can be either “\n” (linux) or “\r\n” (windows). Your code should
work for both cases. Please download the sample input/output files using “Save As” instead of using
copy/paste of the content.

Your RISC-V simulator (with executable name as Vsim) should accept an input file
(inputfilename.txt) in the following command format and produce two output files in the same
directory: disassembly.txt (contains disassembled output) and simulation.txt (contains the simulation
trace). Please hardcode the names of the output files. Please do not hardcode the input filename. It
will be specified when running your program. For example, it can be “sample.txt” or “test.txt”.
Vsim inputfilename.txt
Correct handling of the sample input file (with possible different data values) will be used to determine
60% of the credit. The remaining 40% will be determined from other valid test cases that you will not
imm[11:0] rs1 func3 rd
imm [19:0]

have access prior to grading. It is recommended that you construct your own sample input files with
which to further test your disassembler/simulator. It is okay to share your new testcases with other
students in the class as long as it does not lead to similarity in the project source code.
The disassembler output file should contain 3 columns of data with each column separated by one tab
character (‘\t’ or char(9)). See the sample disassembly file in the project1 assignment.
1. The text (e.g., 0’s and 1’s) string representing the 32-bit data word at that location.
2. The address (in decimal) of that location
3. The disassembled instruction.

Note, if you are displaying an instruction, the third column should contain every part of the instruction,
with each argument separated by a comma and then a space (“, ”).
The simulation output file should have the following format.
20 hyphens and a new line
Cycle < cycleNumber >:< tab >< instr_Address >< tab >< instr_string >
< blank_line >

x00: < tab >< int(x0) >< tab >< int(x1) >…< tab >< int(x7) >
x08: < tab >< int(x8) >< tab >< int(x9) >…< tab >< int(x15) >
x16: < tab >< int(x16) >< tab >< int(x17) >…< tab >< int(x23) >
x24: < tab >< int(x24) >< tab >< int(x25) >…< tab >< int(x31) >
< blank_line >

< firstDataAddress >: < tab >< display 8 data words as integers with tabs in between >
….. < continue until the last data word >
Display all integer values in decimal. Immediate values should be preceded by a “#” symbol. Note
that some instructions take signed immediate values while others take unsigned immediate
values. You will have to make sure you properly display a signed or unsigned value depending on the
Because we will be using “diff –w -B” to check your output versus the expected outputs, please follow
the output formatting. Mismatches will be treated as wrong output and will lead to score penalty.
The project assignment contains the following sample programs/files to test your

• sample.txt : This is the input to your program.
• sample_disassembly.txt : This is what your program should produce as disassembled output.
• sample_simulation.txt : This is what your program should output as simulation trace.

Submission Policy:

Please follow the submission policy outlined below. There can be up to 10% score penalty based on
the nature of submission policy violations.
1. Please develop your project in one source file. In other words, you cannot submit your project if
you have designed it using multiple source files. Please add “.txt” at the end of your filename.
Your file name must be Vsim (e.g., Vsim.c.txt or V.cpp.txt or or
2. Please test your submission. These are the exact steps we will follow too.
o Download your submission from eLearning (ensures your upload was successful).
o Remove “.txt” extension (e.g., Vsim.c.txt should be renamed to Vsim.c)
o Login to any CISE linux machine (e.g., or using
your Gatorlink login and password. Then you use putty and winscp or other tools to login.

Ideally, if your program works on any Linux machine, it should work when we run them.
However, if you get correct results on a Windows or MAC system, we may not get the
same results when we run on storm or thunder. To avoid this headache and time waste, we
strongly recommend that you should test your program on thunder or storm server.
o Please compile to produce an executable named Vsim.
▪ gcc Vsim.c –o Vsim or javac or g++ -std=c++17 Vsim.cpp –o Vsim
o Please do not print anything on screen.
o Please do not hardcode input filename, accept it as a command line option. You should
hardcode your output filenames. Execution should always produce disassembly.txt and
simulation.txt irrespective of the input filename.

o Execute to generate disassembly and simulation files and test with correct/provided ones
▪ ./Vsim inputfilename.txt or java Vsim inputfilename.txt or ./
inputfilename.txt or python3 inputfilename.txt
▪ diff –w –B disassembly.txt sample_disassembly.txt
▪ diff –w –B simulation.txt sample_simulation.txt
3. In previous years, there were many cases where output format was different, filename was
different, command line arguments were different, or e-Learning submission was missing, etc. All
of these led to un-necessary frustration and waste of time for TA, instructor and students. Please
use the exactly same commands as outlined above to avoid 10% score penalty.

4. You are not allowed to take or give any help in completing this project. In the previous years, some
students violated academic honesty. We were able to establish violation in several cases – those
students received “0” in the project, and their names were reported to Dean of Students Office
(DSO). If your name is already in DSO for violation in another course, the penalty for second
offence is determined by DSO. In the past, two students from my class were suspended for a
semester due to repeat academic honesty violation (implies deportation for international students).