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CSC 246 Operating Systems, Assignment 1 solved

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This assignment includes a few programming problems. When grading, we will compile and test your
programs on one of the EOS Linux machines. In general, we’ll compile with options like the following,
although some programs require additional options (as noted below):
gcc -Wall -g -std=c99 -o program program.c
Here, the -g option tells the compiler to include symbol information in the executable, to help debuggers do
their job. The -Wall option turns on lots of compiler warnings. This may help you to find errors in your
code, even if the errors aren’t enough to prevent compilation. The -std=c99 option enables some newer, C99
language features you’re probably accustomed to.
If you develop a program on a different system, you’ll want to make sure it compiles and runs correctly
on EOS Linux machines using these options before you turn it in. Also, remember that your programs need
to be commented and consistently indented, and that you must document your sources and write at least
half your code yourself from scratch.
1. (16 pts) Using your textbook, please give a short definition of the following terms, in your own words.
Write up all your answers into a plain text file called terms.txt and submit it using the assignment 1
assignment in Moodle.
(a) NVRAM
(b) Cache Coherency
(c) Batch interface
(d) Data section (of a process’ memory)
2. (16 pts) Log in to one of the EOS Linux machines (one of the Linux desktop machines in EB 3 or
Daniels, or via remote.eos.ncsu.edu) and use the online manual pages to answer each of the following
questions. To read the online manual page for a particular command, function or system call, you can
usually just type man call, where call is the call you want to read about. If two different manual pages
have the same name, you can specify the section of the manual to make sure you get the page you
want. Section 1 of the manual is for shell commands, and section 2 is for system calls. So, man 1 stat
will tell you about the stat shell command, and man 2 stat will tell you about the system call with
the same name.
Write your answers into a plain text file called problem2.txt and submit it for assignment 1 Moodle.
(a) The wait() system call will block the parent until a child process terminates, but it will also return
to the parent when other state chanes occur in a child. What are the other two state changes for
a child that will cause wait() to return in the parent?
(b) The fork() system call may not always succeed. If, for example, a process has already created too
many children, the process’s resource limits will prevent creation of more. When this happens,
how does fork() notify the caller of this? Specifically, how does fork() notify the caller that it
failed and that reaching the parent’s resource limit on the number of processes was the reason for
the failure?
(c) Lots of system calls will return immediately if a signal is delivered while the process is waiting
in the system call. For example, mq receive() is like this. If a signal is delivered during a call to
mq receive(), how can a program tell that mq receive() returned because of a signal rather than
the arrival of a message?
(d) In class, we looked at a sample program that used sigaction() to register a signal handler. You’ll
sometimes see people doing this with the simpler signal() system instead, but using signal() is
probably a bad way to register a signal hander. Briefly explain why.
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3. (40 pts) For this problem, you’re going to write a program that can use multiple CPU cores to solve
a computationally intensive problem more quickly. Your program will be called square.c. It will read
in a large grid of lower-case letters. In the grid, you’ll look for a 6 × 6 square that contains at least
one copy of every letter of the alphabet. We’ll call this a complete square (I’m making up a name for
these kinds of squares, so it’s easy to talk about them later).
For example, the following is one of the sample input files given out with this problem, input-2.txt.
The first line gives the size of the grid of letters (number of rows, then number of columns). This is
followed by a grid of lower-case letters of the given dimensions. In the following example there’s a
complete square that starts with the first letter on the first row (so, the 6 × 6 square in the upper left
corner). There’s another complete square that starts with the second letter of the second row (so, the
6 × 6 square in the lower right corner). The 6 × 6 square in the upper right isn’t complete; it’s missing
the letter ’a’. The one in the lower left is missing the letter ’f’.
7 7
abcdefm
ghijklg
mmmmmmm
nnnnnnn
opqrsto
uvwxyzu
nabcdef
To help you solve this problem, I’m giving you a starter. It parses the command-line arguments and
reads in the grid of letters from standard input. You’ll add code to look for complete squares by just
checking every 6 × 6 square in the whole grid.
The first command-line argument gives the number of worker processes to use (see below). Optionally,
this can be followed by the word “report”. If a report is requested, then the program will print a report
of every complete square it finds, by printing the location of the square’s upper left corner to standard
output. So, for example, a report of the complete squares in the 7 × 7 grid above would consist of 0 0
and 1 1. The report of squares can be in any order.
Parallelization
The interesting part of this problem is using multiple child processes to find complete squares in parallel.
If you do this right, it should be able to solve the problem faster on a multi-core system.
On the command line, the user gives an integer argument specifying the number of child processes to
create to help solve the problem more quickly. We’ll call these children, workers. After reading the
grid of letters, the parent will fork its workers and then let them do all the real work of solving the
problem.
The workers will cooperate to find complete squares. Each worker will be responsible for checking
part of the grid of letters. You can divide up the work however you want. I used a simple technique
in my solution. Let’s say r0, r1, r2 . . . are names for the rows of letters in the grid. Given m workers, I just made the first worker responsible for looking for complete squares that started on rows
r0, rm, r2m, r3m . . .. The next worker was responsible for looking at squares that started with any of
the rows r1, r1+m, r1+2m, r1+3m, . . ., and so on.
Each worker should count all the complete squares it finds, reporting them to the terminal if the report
option was given on the command line.1 When they’re done, the workers will send their count back to
their parent process, so it can report a total count.
1This is why it’s OK for you to report the squares in any order. Each work can just immediately report a complete square
as soon as it finds on, without worrying about the overall order of the list.
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Interprocess Communication
When the workers are created, they will automatically get a copy of the grid of characters read in at
program start-up, since children get a copy of everything in the parent’s memory. So, after creating
the workers, the parent will just wait for the workers to find all the complete squares.
When the workers are done, they need a way of sending their resulting local counts back to their parent.
We’ll use an anonymous pipe for this. Before creating its children, the parent will make a pipe. Then,
when a child is done, it will write its local count into the writing end of the pipe and the parent will
be able to read it out of the other end.
We’ll send this count in binary. Since it’s just going between processes on the same host, we don’t
have to worry about byte order or other architectural differences. To send the binary representation
of an integer through a pipe, we just need to use the starting address of that integer as the buffer to
send. The size of an integer is the number of bytes we want to send. On the receiving side, we can use
a similar technique to read the contents of the integer into a variable of type int.
After reading the local count from each child, the parent will add them up to report an overall total.
Before exiting, the parent should use wait() to wait for each of its children to terminate.
File Locking
There is a small risk that two workers will try to write their locally computed count into the pipe at
the same time. For a moderate number of workers, I don’t think this would really cause a problem,
but, either way, it’s easy to prevent. Before writing its result into the pipe, a worker will lock the pipe.
This can be done with a call like the following.
lockf( fd, F_LOCK, 0 );
Then, after writing its value, a worker can let others use the pipe by making a call like:
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lockf( fd, F_ULOCK, 0 );
This is an example of advisory file locking. If two workers try to lock the pipe at the same time, one
of them will be granted the lock and the other will be made to wait until the first one unlocks it. This
technique wouldn’t prevent malicious code from writing to the pipe, but, as long as all our workers
lock the pipe before using it, two of them won’t be able to write into it at the same time.
Compiling
Using the lockf() call requires an extra define on the EOS Linux systems. You’ll want to compile your
program like the following.
gcc -Wall -std=c99 -D_BSD_SOURCE -g square.c -o square
Testing
Once your program is working, you should be able to run it as follows:
# One worker on the smallest test input
$ ./square 1 < input-1.txt
Squares: 1
# Two workers, on the 7X7 input, reporting the solutions sas they find them.
$ ./square 2 report < input-2.txt
0 0
1 1
Squares: 2
# Four workers, on a 70×70 input
$ ./square 4 report < input-3.txt
12 25
24 8
29 45
2 56
45 46
49 60
11 25
53 59
27 51
43 64
58 26
Squares: 11
# Timinig the execution of 4 works on a larger input file.
# Your execution time may not be the same as what I got.
$ time ./square 4 < input-4.txt
Squares: 954
real 0m1.026s
user 0m3.617s
sys 0m0.079s
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Be sure to try out your program on some of the large input files using the time command with multiple
workers. As long as the number of workers is less than or equal to the number of CPU cores, you
should see speedup that’s close to linear in the number of workers. This is something we’ll be looking
for when we test your solution. To test performance, you may need to use your own Linux machine or
one of the EOS Linux lab machines; the systems you access via remote.eos.ncsu.edu look like they all
just have one core.
Submission
When you’re done, submit your source file, square.c, using the assignment 1 assignment in Moodle.
4. (40 pts) For this problem, you’re going to use Inter-Process Communication (IPC) to create a pair of
programs, client.c and server.c that work together. I’ve already written part of the server for you.
Client/Server Operation
The client and server work together to implement a simulation of the 15-puzzle. Probably, you’ve seen
this kind of puzzle. It’s a 4 × 4 board with sliding tiles numbered 1 . . . 15. There’s one blank space
that you can slide tiles into by moving an adjacent tile left, right, up or down. Normally, the goal is to
try to get all the tiles in order, but our program won’t worry about this. You’ll just let the user move
tiles around and look at the current state of the board.
When the server is first started it will create a data structure representing the fifteen puzzle in its
solved state, the picture on the left. The client/server program supports five commands. The board
command prints out a picture of the current state of the board, and movement commands let the user
move tiles into adjacent spaces.
Each time you run the client, you indicate with command-line arguments what command it should
perform. It sends the command to the sever and then prints out the server’s response.
• ./client board
Running the client like this requests that the server report the current state of the board. The
client should print out a picture of the board like in the sample execution below, with each tile
number printed in a two column field and with a space between columns of the board. Print a
dash to indicate the empty space on the board.
• ./client up
./client down
./client left
./client right
Running the client like this sends a request to the server to move a tile in the indicated direction,
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into the empty space. So, for example, the up command will move the tile below the empty space
up into the empty space. The client should respond with the word success if the move was
successful, or with invalid command if it wasn’t. For example, if the empty space was on the
bottom row of the board, then the up direction would be an invalid command.
• Invalid command
Any other command-line arguments should be considered invalid, and the client should print the
same invalid command message.
Server Execution
The server will continue running until you kill it, accepting requests from any client that sends them
(so, we won’t be doing any authentication of clients). The server will use the sigaction() call we looked
at in class to register a signal handler for SIGINT. When the user kills the server with ctrl-C, the
server will catch the signal, print out a blank line, then print out a the final state of the board, just
like what we get when we run ./client board. Printing a blank line after the ctrl-C will make the
final report look better. The first line won’t be printed with a ^C to the left.
Client/Server Communication
The client and server will communicate using POSIX message queues. Each time the client is run, it
will send a message to the server and then wait for a response to report to the user.
We have a pair of example programs from class that demonstrate how to create and use message
queues. A message queue is unidirectional communication channel that lets us send messages (arbitrary
sequences of bytes) between processes on the same host. Each message queue needs a unique name.
Two processes can communicate by using mq open() to create a new or open an existing message queue
with an agreed-upon name. Then, one process can use mq send() to put a messages into the queue,
and another program can use mq receive() to get messages from the queue in the same order they
were sent. When a program is done using a message queue, it can close it using mq close(). The
message queue will continue to exist (maybe even with some queued messages) until it is deleted with
mq unlink().
Message queues let us send an arbitrary sequence of bytes. You can decide how you want to encode
client requests and server responses as messages. For example, you can just encode them as nullterminated strings. For example, when the client asks to see a copy of the board, it could just send
the string “board” to the server and the server could respond with a big string containing the current
state of the board. If you use a string encoding for messages, be sure to think about null termination
for your string. For example, if you send the string “board” as a 5-byte message, then the receiver
won’t actually get the null terminator marking the end of the string.
For client/server communication, we’re each going to need two message queues, one to send requests to
the server and another to send responses back to the client. On a single host, every different message
queue needs a unique name. To avoid name collisions between students, we’ll just include our unity IDs
in every message queue name. Use the name “/unityID-server-queue” for the message queue used to
send messages to your server. Use “/unityID-client-queue” as the name of the queue to send responses
back to the client.
Partial Implementation
When started, the server creates both of these message queues, opening one for reading and the other for
writing. Then, the server repeatedly reads messages from the server-queue and sends back the response
via the client-queue. The course website has a partial implementation of the server. It already creates
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the needed message queues and unlinks them when it’s done. You will need to add code to store and
initialize the board representation. You’ll need to read, process and respond to messages and handle
the SIGINT sent when ctrl-C is pressed.
In addition to the partial server implementation, you also get a common.h header file, defining some
constants needed by both the client and server. You’ll need to update this file to use your unity ID in
the message queue names. I’m not providing a partial implementation for the client. You get to write
that part yourself (but, the client is easier; mine is less than half the size of my server). Remember,
the server is responsible for creating both message queues. The client just needs to open and use them.
Compilation
To use POSIX message queues, you’ll need to link your programs with the rt library. Also, to use
sigaction() you will need to define the preprocessor symbol, POSIX SOURCE. You should be able to
compile your client and server using commands like the following:
$ gcc -D_POSIX_SOURCE -Wall -g -std=c99 -o server server.c -lrt
$ gcc -Wall -g -std=c99 -o client client.c -lrt
Execution
Once your code is working, you should be able to leave the server running in one terminal window and
connect to it repeatedly by running the client in a different window. Logging in via remote.eos.ncsu.edu
or remote-linux.eos.ncsu.edu takes you to a pool of multiple EOS linux hosts. Be careful. If you log in
to this address twice, using putty or another ssh client, you may not actually get two terminal windows
connected to the same host. Message queues only let you communicate between processes on the same
host, so they won’t work if you accidentally login on two different machines. You can type hostname
in each terminal to see what host it’s running on. To be sure you get two logins on the same host, you
can login once, use hostname to figure out what host you’re on, then login directly to that same host
(rather than remote.eos.ncsu.edu) using your ssh client.
Sample Execution
Once your client and server are working, you should be able to run them as follows. Here, the left-hand
column shows the server running in one terminal, and the right-hand column shows the client being
run repeatedly in a different terminal window. I’ve put in some vertical space to show the order these
commands are executed, and I’ve included some comments to explain some of the steps. We start the
server on the left, run the client several times and then kill the server. When the server is terminated,
you can see a printout for the ctrl-C (printed as ^C), then the server’s report of the final state of the
board.
$ ./server
# Make a couple of legal moves, then
# check the state of the board.
$ ./client down
success
$ ./client right
success
$ ./client board
7
1 2 3 4
5 6 7 8
9 10 – 11
13 14 15 12
# Two more right moves are OK
$ ./client right
success
$ ./client right
success
# … but then you reach the edge.
$ ./client right
invalid command
$ ./client board
1 2 3 4
5 6 7 8
– 9 10 11
13 14 15 12
# Up and left commands
$ ./client up
success
$ ./client left
success
$ ./client board
1 2 3 4
5 6 7 8
13 9 10 11
14 – 15 12
# The server rejects nonsense commands
# just like invalid moves.
$ ./client jfksaljf
invalid command
# Kill the server with ctrl-C
# and see the final board state.
^C
^C
1 2 3 4
5 6 7 8
13 9 10 11
14 – 15 12
Submission
When you’re done, submit the source code for your client.c, your modified server.c and your modified
common.h using the assignment 1 submission in Moodle. From previous years teaching this class, I’ve
seen that students sometimes forget to submit their header files, so be sure to submit your common.h
file. Otherwise, we won’t be able to compile your code.
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