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# CS 2210 Assignment 1 Solved

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1. (3 marks) Use the definition of “big Oh” to prove that 1
2n−1
is O(
1
n
).
2. (3 marks) Let f(n) and g(n) be positive functions such that f(n) is O(g(n)) and g(n) ≥ 1 for all
n ≥ 1. Using the definition of “big Oh” show that f(n) + k is O(g(n)), where k > 0 is constant.
Hints. Since f(n) is O(g(n)) then there are constants c
′ > 0 and integer n

0 ≥ 1 such that
f(n) ≤ c

g(n) for all n ≥ n

0
. Hence, f(n) + k ≤ c

· · ·. Also, recall that g(n) ≥ 1 for all n ≥ 1.

3. (2 marks) Use the definition of “big Oh” to prove that 1
n
is not O(
1
n2 ).
4. (4 marks) Consider the following algorithm for the search problem.
Algorithm triSearch(L, f irst, last, x)

Input: Array L storing integer values sorted in non-increasing order, index first of the 1st value
in L, index last of the last value in L, and integer value x.
Out: Position of x in L if x is in L, or -1 if x is not in L
if first > last then return -1
else {
numV alues = last − first + 1
third ← first + ⌊
numValues
3

if x = L[third] then return third

else if x < L[third] then return triSearch(L, f irst, third, x)
else {
twoT hird ← first + 2 × ⌊ numV alues
3

if x = L[twoThird] then return twoThird
else if x < L[twoThird] then return triSearch(L, third, twoT hird, x)
else return triSearch(L, twoT hird, last, x)
}
}
1

Prove that either (i) the algorithm terminates, or (ii) the algorithm does not terminate.
 Note that to prove that the algorithm terminates you cannot just give an example and show
that the algorithm terminates on it; instead you must prove that when the algorithm is given
as input any array L as specified and any values first, last, and x, the algorithm will always
end.
 However, to show that the algorithm does not terminate it is enough to show an example
for which the algorithm does not finish. In this case you must explain why the algorithm
does not terminate.

5. (4 marks) Consider the following algorithm.
Algorithm copies(L, n, x)
Input: Array L storing n > 0 integer values, and value x
Output: The number of copies of the value x stored in L.
if x = L[0] then c ← 1
else c ← 0
for i ← 0 to n − 1 do
if x = L[i] then c ← c + 1
return c

Note that this algorithm terminates, as the for loop is repeated only n times.
Prove that either (i) the algorithm outputs the correct answer, or (ii) the algorithm does not
 To prove that the algorithm is correct you cannot just give an example and show that the
algorithm computes the correct output. You must prove that when the algorithm is given
as input any array L storing n > 0 integer values and any value x, the algorithm correctly
outputs the number of times that the value x appears in L.
 However, to show that the algorithm is incorrect it is enough to show an example for which
the algorithm produces the wrong answer. In this case you must explain why the output
is incorrect.

6. (4 marks) Consider the following algorithm.
Algorithm duplicated(L, n)
Input: Array L storing n > 1 integer values
duplicateFound ← true
i ← 0
while duplicateFound = true do {
if L[i] = L[i + 1] then return true
else duplicateFound = false
if i < n − 1 then i ← i + 1
}
return duplicateFound

Compute the time complexity of this algorithm in the worst case. You must explain how you
computed the time complexity, and you must give the order of the complexity.
7. (2 marks) Optional question. Download from OWL the java class Search.java, which contains
implementations of 3 different algorithms for solving the search problem:
 LinearSearch, of time complexity O(n).
 QuadraticSeach, of time complexity O(n
2
).
2
 FactorialSearch, of time complexity O(n!).

Modify the main method so that it prints the worst case running times of the above algorithms
for the following input sizes:
 FactorialSearch, for input sizes n = 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12.
 QuadraticSeach, for input sizes n = 5, 10, 100, 1000, 10000.
 LinearSearch for, input sizes n = 5, 10, 100, 1000, 10000, 100000.
Fill out the following tables indicating the running times of the algorithms for the above input
sizes. You do not need to include your code for the Search class.
n Linear Search
5
10
100
1000
10000
100000