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# COMP2230/6360 Algorithms Assignment solved

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## Description

You have been contracted by the Department of Fire and Emergency Services to develop an algorithm
they can use to place temporary fire stations in the case of extensive bushfires. They would provide
you with a map of hotspots affected by a bushfire and a number of temporary fire stations they are able
to support at that time.
The temporary fire stations will each be responsible several hotspots, with no double-handling of
hotspots (i.e., each hotspot will be handled by only one temporary fire station).
The fire department have two important considerations:
๏ท On one hand, they want to ensure that hotspots handled by different fire stations are as far from each
other as possible. This is important as fire can easily spread and in general it is not possible to fully
synchronise the efforts of all neighbouring fire stations.
๏ท On the other hand, it is also important that hotspots handled by the same fire station are as close together
as possible so that fire brigade can move from one hotspot to another.
Therefore your program should suggest the number of fire stations to maximize the ratio of distances
between hotspots handled by different fire stations and those handled by the same station.
Your task is to solve this problem with an efficient algorithm for solving a clustering problem.
CLUSTERING BACKGROUND
The clustering problem is defined as follows:
Given a set of items, ๐1, ๐2, โฆ , ๐๐, and a set of distances between those items,
๐๐๐ = ๐(๐๐
, ๐๐) where ๐,๐ โ [1, ๐]
then find the optimal clustering of the points.
We explain/define the important concepts as follows.
๏ท Distance between two items is a measure of dissimilarity between the two items. If the items are points
in a two-dimensional plane, distance can be defined as the Euclidean distance.
๏ท Inter-clustering distance (InterCD) is the minimum distance between any two items belonging to
different clusters. Formally:
InterCD = min{๐(๐๐
, ๐๐) | ๐,๐ โ [1, ๐] and ๐๐
is in a different cluster to ๐๐
}
๏ท Similarly, intra-clustering distance (IntraCD) is the maximum distance between any two items
belonging to the same cluster. Formally:
IntraCD = max{๐(๐๐
, ๐๐) | ๐,๐ โ [1, ๐] and ๐๐
is in the same cluster as ๐๐
}
๏ท A clustering is optimal if it maximizes the inter-clustering distance for the given number k of clusters.
(Note that, in general, there are many different ways to define an optimal clustering, and we are using
this particular one).
๏ท The centroid of the cluster is the โaverageโ point in the cluster. The x-coordinate of the centroid is the
average of the ๐ฅ-coordinates of all the points in the cluster; similarly, the ๐ฆ-coordinate of the centroid
is the average of the ๐ฆ-coordinates of all the points in the cluster.
Task 1 โ Individual and pairs assignment: Use Kruskalโs algorithm for finding a minimum spanning
tree to find an optimal clustering (clustering that maximizes the inter-clustering distance) of the given
set of n points in a two-dimensional plane, for the given number k of clusters.
Task 2 โ Pairs assignment only: Among the optimal clusterings obtained by Kruskalโs algorithm for
different values of ๐ (where 2 โค ๐ โค ๐ โ 1), find the one that maximizes the ratio InterCD
IntraCD
between
the inter-clustering distance and intra-clustering distance.
INPUT
1. Your program must be executable from the command line. It must accept input as command line
arguments (a.k.a., parameters), and write output to standard output (e.g., cout in C++,
System.out in Java). Errors should be printed to standard error (e.g., cerr in C++,
System.error in Java).
2. Your program executable (or your main Java class) must be called kcluster. The first command
line arguments it accepts must be a path to the input file, and the second must be the number of
temporary fire stations.
For example, to run the program using a file named โinput.txtโ in the current folder, and 2
temporary fire stations, we would run:
kcluster ./input.txt 2
or
java kcluster ./input.txt 2
3. If you are working in pairs, then the program must allow for the 2nd argument to be the word
โautoโ. In this case the program will automatically calculate number of clusters so as to maximize
the inter-clustering to intra-clustering distance ratio.
4. The input file will be a comma separated value file, with the first column being the ID of the
hotspot, the 2nd column is the ๐ฅ-coordinate of the hotspot, and the 3rd column is the ๐ฆ-coordinate
of the hotspot. The ID will be a unique integer, and the ๐ฅ- and ๐ฆ-coordinates will be floating point
numbers.
For example, an input file might look like:
1,1.0,1.0
2,2.0,2.0
3,3.0,5.0
4,7.0,8.0
5,8.0,7.0
5. The program should handle obvious error conditions (e.g., incorrectly formatted or empty input
files, negative numbers of temporary fire stations, etc) by printing an error message to standard
error and immediately stopping execution.
OUTPUT
The output must look like the following example.
INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT:
Suppose the program is run for an input file named โinput.txtโ, requesting two stations by running
java kcluster ./input.txt 2 then the output would be:
Hello and welcome to Kruskalโs Clustering!
The weighted graph of hotspots:
0 1.41 4.47 9.22 9.22
1.41 0 3.16 7.81 7.81
4.47 3.16 0 5 5.39
9.22 7.81 5 0 1.41
9.22 7.81 5.39 1.41 0
There are 5 hotspots.
You have requested 2 temporary fire stations.
Station 1:
Coordinates: (2.00, 2.67)
Hotspots: {1,2,3}
Station 2:
Coordinates: (7.50, 7.50)
Hotspots: {4,5}
Inter-clustering distance: 5.00
Thank you for using Kruskalโs Clustering. Bye.
PAIRS ASSIGNMENT:
The assignment should look the same as the individual assignment if the number of requested
temporary fire stations is a number.
In addition: if the number of fire stations is given as auto, then the output should be as below. For
example, suppose the program is run for an input file named โinput.txtโ, requesting automatic station
calculation by running java kcluster ./input.txt auto then the output would be:
There are 5 hotspots.
Automatically calculating number of temporary fire stations.
The weighted graph of hotspots:
0 1.41 4.47 9.22 9.22
1.41 0 3.16 7.81 7.81
4.47 3.16 0 5 5.39
9.22 7.81 5 0 1.41
9.22 7.81 5.39 1.41 0
Number of stations: 3
Station 1:
Coordinates: (1.50, 1.50)
Hotspots: {1,2}
Station 2:
Coordinates: (3.00,5.00)
Hotspots: {3}
Station 3:
Coordinates: (7.50, 7.50)
Hotspots: {4,5}
InterCD/IntraCD = 2.24
Thank you for using Kruskalโs Clustering. Bye.
ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
Your code must compile and run. A program that does not compile or run can only earn marks from
the โGraph constructionโ and โKruskalโs Algorithmโ categories (see below). The marker will not
modify your code to make it work.
Marks awarded for the assignments depend on whether the assignment is an individual or pairs
assignment, as follows.
INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT
1. Graph construction: 12 marks.
1.1. (10 marks) for the correct algorithm and graph
1.2. (2 marks) for the well-commented and clear implementation
2. Kruskalโs Algorithm: 45 marks.
2.1. (40 marks) for the correct algorithm
2.2. (5 marks) for a well-commented and clear implementation
3. Positioning of fire stations: 15 marks.
4. Calculation of inter-clustering distance: 10 marks.
5. Input and output as specified: 18 marks.
5.1. (4 marks) Program accepts command line parameters.
5.2. (4 marks) Program outputs to standard output and writes errors to standard error.
5.3. (10 marks) Output formatted as requested.
PAIRS ASSIGNMENT
1. Graph construction: 7 marks.
1.1. (5 marks) for the correct algorithm and graph
1.2. (2 marks) for the well-commented and clear implementation
2. Kruskalโs Algorithm: 35 marks.
2.1. (30 marks) for the correct algorithm
2.2. (5 marks) for a well-commented and clear implementation
3. Positioning of emergency stations: 10 marks.
4. Calculation of inter-clustering distance: 10 marks.
5. Finding the number of clusters to maximize InterCD
IntraCD
: 20 marks.
6. Input and output as specified: 18 marks.
6.1. (4 marks) Program accepts command line parameters correctly.
6.2. (4 marks) Program outputs to standard output and writes errors to standard error.
6.3. (10 marks) Output formatted as requested.