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Assignment 1 CSCE 523 Solved

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1. (10 points) What is intelligence? There are several research views that can
be taken to understand intelligence, for the purpose of this discussion, let
us label them philosophical, physicalism, and psychological. Almost every
AI algorithm we will discuss is related to one or more of these views.

Read
the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy articles on the Theory of Mind
topics of Qualia and Physicalism (http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/qualia/
http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/physicalism/), and the Sweller paper on
Human Cognitive Architecture
(http://www.csuchico.edu/~nschwartz/Sweller_2008.pdf ) {note: this is
the closest I have found to a good short discussion on cognitive psychology
and the modeling of it}

a. Which view do you feel is more correct? And why?
b. Given your choice, is an artificially generated intelligence possible?
Why or why not?
2. (15 points) Testing for intelligence: Read Turing’s original paper (available
on-line at: http://www.abelard.org/turpap/turpap.htm). In the paper, he
discusses several potential objections to his proposed enterprise and his
test for intelligence. Also, refer to the discussion on the Chinese Room
Argument found in the text, slides and at:

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/chinese-room/ or video:
http://www.open.edu/openlearn/history-the-arts/culture/philosophy/60-
second-adventures-thought?track=04fb8b569.
a. Which objections still carry some weight? Are his refutations valid?
b. Can you think of new objections arising from developments since
he wrote the paper?

c. Do you think that there is a better test that could be proposed?
3. (5 points) Intelligence and computational limits: There are well-known
classes of problems that are intractably difficult for computers and other
classes that are provably undecideable by any computer. Does this mean
that strong (human level) AI is impossible? Why or why not?

4. (10 points) Consider a modified version of the vacuum-cleaner world
(depicted in Figures 2.2 and 2.3 and specified on pages 35-36), in which
the geography of the environment – its extent, boundaries, dirt locations,
and obstacles is unknown; the agent can go Up and Down as well as Left
and Right.
a. Can a simple reflex agent be perfectly rational for this
environment? Explain.

b. Can you design an environment in which your randomized agent
will perform very poorly? If not explain, if yes provide an example.
c. Can a reflex agent with state outperform a simple reflex agent?
Why?
5. (20 points) For the following tree, show the lists of open and visited nodes
for each cycle of the listed search algorithms. Expand the nodes in a right
to left ordering. The start node is S and the goal node is X.

The numbers
next to the edges indicate the associated cost. Note: follow the format from
class.
a. Breadth-first search
b. Depth-first search
c. Uniform cost search

6. (40 points) Ah, Christmas is over. Now, that horrible mall traffic should let
up… what is this, a traffic jam?
Seems that everyone is stuck and you can’t get through. You must direct
the trapped shoppers out of your way and maneuver your trusty vehicle
through the maze to get back home in one piece.
For this problem, implement a move optimal solver for the Rush Hour
puzzle.

Rush Hour is a sliding block puzzle containing 4 trucks, 11 cars, and
your vehicle placed on a 6×6 grid, with impenetrable walls surrounding its
perimeter except for a one cell exit edge. The trucks occupy an area of one
by three cells, and the cars occupy an area of or one by two adjacent grid
cells. All vehicles can only move forwards or backwards, never overlapping.
The goal is to move the vehicles one at a time so that your car may exit.

The implementation should read a set of puzzles from a text file (format
shown in the example below). Where A1 to K1 are cars, O1 to R1 are trucks,
and X0 is your vehicle. The exit is always at the third position down on the
right, and each empty grid location is (..). The file begins with the number
of puzzles found in the file.

Expected turn-in is the 1) source code, 2) compilation and execution
instructions, and 3) a short paper describing your solution, results and any
search enhancements. A set of 5 problems are provided for testing your
search algorithm during development (simple.txt), and 5 that must be
tested against in the report (hard.txt), be sure to include your timing and
best path results for each of the problems your search can solve. Your
implementation must be your work only.

As for what enhancements to try
– take a look at the publications of Andreas Junghanns on Sokoban
(http://www.cs.ualberta.ca/~games/Sokoban/papers.html).
To get you started, I have provided Java and MATLAB code that will read
the files and handle the state updating (both are in the class directory). For
the Java, just implement the search interface in each of your own
search(es).

For MATLAB, fill in the search function. Note on implementation
language – you may find that MATLAB is quicker to write than Java,
however you will take a significant performance hit. Using a BFS, the
runtime comparison between the implementations on the simple.txt
problems are:

Problem Java Matlab
1 0.003s 0.03s
2 0.08s 0.13s
3 0.50s 4.30s
4 0.44s 755.89s (13 min)
5 0.92s (7hr 36min)
1

O1..Q1Q1Q1B1
O1….C1..B1
O1X0X0C1…. <= Exit is here, this comment and the arrow
……P1…. does not appear in the file.
……P1….
……P1….